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An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.

microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP).A processor is an important unit in the embedded system hardware. It is the heart of the embedded system.

The key characteristic, however, is being dedicated to handle a particular task. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. Some embedded systems are mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale.

Physically, embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, and largely complex systems like hybrid vehicles, MRI, and avionics. Complexity varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure.

1.wireless communication

Wireless devices and embedded systems have several common requirements, constraints and properties. An embedded system is a software, firmware and hardware combination built into an appliance or device. It makes the appliance smart and autonomous or self-sufficient. A wireless device runs on a combination of microprocessor, operating system and application software that enables it to communicate with a network or another device via electromagnetic waves.

commonly used wireless communication modules are
6.RF modules
7.power line modem


The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which was published in 1920. The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota, which means labor.Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.

3.Industrial Automation

Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services. The correct incentive for applying automation is to increase productivity, and/or quality beyond that possible with current human labor levels so as to realize economies of scale, and/or realize predictable quality levels. In the scope of industrialisation, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provides human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements while increasing load capacity, speed, and repeatability. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the world economy and in daily experience.

4.Bio medical applications

Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes . This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine: It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance healthcare treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy.Biomedical engineering has only recently emerged as its own discipline, compared to many other engineering fields. Such an evolution is common as a new field transitions from being an interdisciplinary specialization among already-established fields, to being considered a field in itself. Much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, spanning a broad array of subfields (see below). Prominent biomedical engineering applications include the development of biocompatible prostheses, various diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices ranging from clinical equipment to micro-implants, common imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals.

6.Rela-time operating system

A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time application requests. It must be able to process data as it comes in, typically without buffering delays. Processing time requirements (including any OS delay) are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter.

Real time operative system IS an operating system (OS) responsible for managing the hardware resources of a computer and hosting applications that run on the computer. An RTOS performs these tasks, but is also specially designed to run applications with very precise timing and a high degree of reliability. This can be especially important in measurement and automation systems where downtime is costly or a program delay could cause a safety hazard.

7.Artificial Neural Network

In computer science and related fields, artificial neural networks are models inspired by animal central nervous systems (in particular the brain) that are capable of machine learning and pattern recognition. They are usually presented as systems of interconnected "neurons" that can compute values from inputs by feeding information through the network. Like other machine learning methods, neural networks have been used to solve a wide variety of tasks that are hard to solve using ordinary rule-based programming, including computer vision and speech recognition.


  • Introduction to Microcontrollers
  • Introduction to 8051- Arch, Pin Description, Memory Organization, Ports, Registers
  • 8051 Addressing Modes
  • Introduction to SDCC (Compiler)
  • I/O Port Programming
  • Timer Programming
  • Serial Communication
  • Interrupts
  • Programming in C for 8051 uC
  • Interfacing Modules   (LCD, GPS, GSM, Zigbee, RFID)

PIC 16f/18f

  • Introduction to PIC Microcontrollers
  • Introduction to RISC Architecture
  • MPLAB IDE Familiarization
  • I/O Ports and Registers
  • Introduction on Data EEPROM and Flash memory
  • Timer Programming
  • Serial Port for communication
  • Capture/Compare/PWM Modes
  • Interfacing Modules   (LCD, GPS, GSM, Zigbee, RFID)


  • Introduction to AVR Microcontrollers
  • Introduction to avr-gcc compiler
  • Introduction to AVR Studio IDE
  • I/O Ports Programming and Registers
  • Serial Communication Protocol
  • Communication Protocols- 

   SPI Communication Protocol
   I2C Communication Protocol

  • ADC Configuration
  • TIMER Programming
  • PWM Motor Control
  • Real Time Clock and Client- Server Model
  • Interfacing Modules   (LCD, GPS, GSM, Zigbee, RFID)

ARM7 (16/32 Bit Processor)

  • Briefing on ARM History
  • Overview of ARM architecture, pipelining, registers, operating modes
  • Introduction to ARM7TDMI Architecture
  • ARM7 Processor Core

Architecture- Pipelining, Modes of Operation, Memory Organization, Register Organization

  • Introduction to arm-elf-gcc
  • Instruction Set

ARM Instruction set
Features of ARM Instruction set
THUMB Instruction set
ARM/THUMB Interworking
Combining ARM and THUMB code

  • Peripheral Configuration

     I/O Port Configuration
     Timer Programming
     Serial Port Programming

  • Interrupt Programming
  • PWM Programming
  • Compiler Optimization Techniques